Side Effect Of Smoking To Adults
You may have first smoked a cigarette out of curiosity or because of peer pressure, but you probably had no idea how easily it could become a habit and how serious a hazard it is to your health, Not only does smoking have unattractive side effects – your hair and clothes smell of smoke, your fingers and teeth become stained, and your skin starts to wrinkle prematurely – it also reduce the length of your fertile years.
As well as the infamous and addictive nicotine and the carcinogenic compound tar, tobacco smoke contains thousands of deadly poisons, including arsenic, cyanide and carbon monoxide.These toxic substances damage your body in a number of ways: they constrict the small blood vessels in your body, restricting your blood flow and increasing your blood pressure; they act as mutagens, causing faulty cell division that can lead to cancer; they compromise the body’s immune system, leaving you more prone to disease and infection; and they decrease the production of hormones, especially oestrogen, which may disrupt your fertility. The carcinogenic substances in tobacco smoke can cause lung cancer, as well as increase the risk of cancer of cervix, mouth, throat, bladder, stomach and liver, to name but a few. Smokers are also more likely to die prematurely of heart disease, chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
Side Effect Of Smoking To Babies
In 2004, 11.9% of babies born to smokers in the United State were of low birth weight (less than 5.5 pounds), compared to 7.2% of babies of non-smokers. Low birth weight can result from poor growth before birth, preterm delivery, or a combination of both. Smoking has long been known to slow fetal growth. Smoking also increases the risk of preterm delivery (before 37 weeks gestation). Premature and low-birth-weight babies face an increased risk of serious health problems during the newborn period, chronic lifelong disabilities (such as cerebral palsy, mental retardation and learning problems), and even death. It is irrelevant whether the mother smoke or is exposed to second-hand smoke during pregnancy; bio-markers found in cigarette smoke can be found in the mother and neonate (Ashford et al., 2010)
Combined data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2002 to 2005 National Surveys of Drug Use and Health (SAMHSA, 2007) were examined to compare rates of past month cigarette use among women aged 15 to 44 by pregnancy status and demographic characteristics. Regardless of pregnancy status, white women were more likely to smoke cigarette in the past month of the survey than African American or Hispanic women.
The greatest effect of smoking during pregnancy is an increase risk of newborns that are smaller for gestational age; however, prematurity, infant mortality, and other pregnancy complications (such as spontaneous abortion, placenta previa, placental abruption, and premature rupture of fetal membranes) also are increased (Lieberman at al., 1994).
These is some evidence that prenatal tobacco exposure causes learning and attention problems in children but less consistently than does alcohol exposure.